Shale shaker power system

The most common power source for shale shakers is the rig electrical power generator system. The rig power supply should provide constant voltage and frequency to all electrical components on the rig. Most drilling rigs generate 460 alternating-current-volt (VAC), 60 Hz, 3-phase power or 380 VAC, 50 Hz, 3-phase power. Other  common voltages are 230 VAC, 190 VAC, and 575 VAC. Through transformers and other controls, a single power source can supply a variety of electrical power to match the requirements of different rig components.
Shale shakers should be provided with motors and starters to match the rig generator output. Most motors are dual wound. These may be wired to use either of two voltages and starter configurations. For example, some use 230/460VAC motors and some use 190/380VAC motors. Dual-wound motors allow the shaker to be operated properly with either power supply after relatively simple rewiring. Care must be taken, however, to make certain that the proper voltage is used. Electric-motor armatures are designed to rotate at a specific speed. Typically the rotational speed is 1800 rpm for 60-Hz applications and 1500 rpm for 50-Hz applications.
Shale shakers use a vibrating screen surface to conserve the drilling fluid and reject drilled solids. The effects of this vibration are described in terms of the g factor, or the function of the angular displacement of a screen surface and the square of the rotational speed. (For a detailed discussion, see the preceding section on g factor.)
Angular displacement is achieved by rotating an eccentric mass. Most shale shakers are designed to be operated at a specific, fixed g factor by matching the stroke to a given machine’s rotational speed. It follows that any deviation in speed will affect the g factor and influence the shaker performance.
Deviations in speed may be caused by one or more factors but typically are caused by fluctuations in voltage or the frequency of the alternating current. If the voltage drops, the motor cannot produce the rated horsepower and may not be able to sustain the velocity needed to keep the eccentric mass moving correctly. Low voltage also  reduces the life of electrical components. Deviations in frequency result in the motor turning faster (frequencies higher than normal) or slower (frequencies lower than
normal). This directly influences rpm and shaker performance.
Slower rpm for a particular motor reduces the g factor and causes poor separation and poor conveyance. Faster rpm increases the g factor and may improve conveyance  and separation, but can destroy the machine and increases screen fatigue failures. In extreme cases, higher rpm may cause structural damage to the shale shaker. Thus, it is important to provide proper power to the shale shaker.
For example, a particular shale shaker is designed to operate at 4 g’s. The shaker has an angular displacement, or stroke, of 0.09 inches. This shaker must vibrate at 1750 rpm to produce 4.1 g’s. At 60 Hz, the motor turns at 1750 rpm, so the g factor is 4.1, just as designed. If the frequency drops to 55 Hz, the motor speed reduces to 1650 rpm, which results in a g factor of 3.5. Further reduction of frequency to 50 Hz results in 1500 rpm and a g factor of 2.9.
Most rigs provide 460 VAC, 60 Hz power, so most shale shakers are designed to operate with this power supply. However, many drilling rigs are designed for 380- VAC/50-Hz electrical systems. To provide proper g factors for 50-Hz operations, shale shaker manufacturers rely on one of two methods: increasing stroke length or  using voltage/ frequency inverters (transformers).
A motor designed for 50-Hz applications rotates at 1500 rpm. At 0.09-inch stroke, a shale shaker will produce 2.9 g’s. Increasing the stroke length to 0.13 inches provides 4.1 g’s, similar to the original 60-Hz design. However, the longer stroke length and slower speed will produce different solids-separation and conveyance  performance. At the longer stroke lengths, shakers will probably convey more solids and have a higher fluid capacity. Conversely, instead of increasing the stroke length, some manufacturers use voltage inverters to provide 460-VAC/60-Hz output power from a 380-VAC/50 Hz supply.
Constant electrical power is necessary for good, constant shale shaker performance. The tables below assist in designing a satisfactory electrical distribution system.
Alternating-current motors are common on most shale shakers. The motor rating indicates the amount of electrical current required to operate the motor. The values in Table 7.1 provide some guidelines for various motors. Be wary of all electrical hazards; follow all applicable regulatory codes, nationally, internationally, regionally, and locally, as well as manufacturer’s safety and installation instructions. The manufacturer’s recommendations should always take precedence over the generalized
values in these tables. The values in the tables are to be used as general guidelines only. Many factors, including insulating material and temperature, control the values.
The amount of electric current that a conductor (or wire) can carry increases as the diameter of the wire increases. Common approximate values for currents are presented with the corresponding wire size designation in Table 7.2. Conductors, even relatively large-diameter wire, still have some resistance to the flow of electric current. This resistance to flow results in a line voltage drop. When an electric motor is located in an area remote from the generator, the line voltage drop may decrease
the motor voltage to unacceptably low values. Some guidelines of wire diameter necessary to keep the voltage drop to 3% are presented in Table 7.3.

hp=horsepower; v=volts.
WARNING: Electrical Hazard—follow ALL national electric codes, local electric codes, and
manufacturer’s safety and installation instructions. Always conform to regulatory codes, as
apply regionally and internationally.

AWG=American Wire Gauge.
WARNING: Electrical Hazard—follow ALL national electric codes, local electric codes, and
manufacturer’s safety and installation instructions. Always conform to regulatory codes,
as apply regionally and internationally.