Mud treatment and mixing equipment mainly contain: agitator, mud gun and hopper. They assist solids control equipment deal with mud from drilling hole and add chemical materials in mud.
Drilling mud components
Drilling mud is usually a suspension of clay (sodium bentonite) in water. Higher density mud can be obtained.
“by adding finely granulated (fine sand to silt size) barite (BaSO4).”
Various chemicals or additives are also used in different situations. The drilling fluid continuous phase is usually water (freshwater or brine) called water–base fluids. When the continuous phase is oil (emulsion of water in oil) it is called oil–base fluid.
- Water base fluids are normally made at the rig site.
- (oil base mud and synthetic fluids are normally manufactured in a drilling fluid plant).
- Special treatment and mixing equipment exists for this purpose.
- Tank agitators, mud guns, mixing hoppers, and other equipment are used for these purposes.
Drilling fluids physical propertiesblenders
The basic drilling fluids physical properties are density, viscosity, and filtrate.
- Fresh water density is 8.37 pounds per gallon (ppg).
- Bentonite adds viscosity to the fluids and also increases the density to about 9 to 10 ppg.
- Higher density (15 to 20 ppg) is obtained with barite, iron oxide, or any other dense fine ground material.
Tank agitators or blenders
- Two types: vertical mud agitator and horizontal mud agitator.
- Agitators are located in the mud tanks.
- The aim of agitator is homogenize the fluid in the tank.
- It help to keep the various suspended material homogeneously distributed in the tank.
- By forcing toroidal and whirl motions of the fluid in the tank.
Mud guns are mounted in gimbals at the side of the tanks, allow aiming a mud jet to any point in the tank. Mud gun help to homogenize the properties of two tanks, and spread liquid additives in a large area of the tank (from a pre-mixed tank).
The mixing hopper allows adding powder substances and additives in the mud system.
The hopper is connected to a Venturi pipe. Mud is circulated by centrifugal pumps and passes in the Venturi at high speed, sucking the substance into the system.