The production of raw materials for energy generation – coal, oil, and gas offers considerable scope for the use of decanter centrifuges, at least for coal and oil. The manufacture of gas is a little-used process now that natural gas is so freely available. When this phase passes, as gas availability reduces, then the gasification of coals and heavy oils will also offer good applications (as will the eventual need to convert coals into liquid fuels).Continue reading “Decanter Centrifuge And Energy Materials Production”
A key element in the offshore drilling supply chain is the onshore supply base. The wastes most commonly associated with offshore E&P activities include: Drilling fluids, drill cuttings, produced water, treatment, workover, and completion fluids, deck drainage, produced sand, naturally occurring radioactive materials, and other assorted wastes.
Several metals are present in most drilling muds (Table 1). Concentrations of individual metals may vary depending on the composition of the base ingredients and additives. The metals of greatest concern because of their abundance in drilling muds and cuttings and their potential toxicity to marine organisms include arsenic, barium, chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. Some of these metals are added intentionally to drilling muds as metal salts and organo-metallic compounds, if approved by local regulations. These metals are included in the added metals category. Most metals in drilling discharges are trace impurities in drill cuttings and major mud ingredients, particularly barite, ilmenite, and clay.
The strengthening of environmental regulations around the world has changed the way service companies and their customers view the provision of drilling fluids. Ignoring the effects on the environment from mixing, transporting, cleaning, re-using and disposing of mud and cuttings is no longer an option.