Several metals are present in most drilling muds (Table 1). Concentrations of individual metals may vary depending on the composition of the base ingredients and additives. The metals of greatest concern because of their abundance in drilling muds and cuttings and their potential toxicity to marine organisms include arsenic, barium, chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. Some of these metals are added intentionally to drilling muds as metal salts and organo-metallic compounds, if approved by local regulations. These metals are included in the added metals category. Most metals in drilling discharges are trace impurities in drill cuttings and major mud ingredients, particularly barite, ilmenite, and clay.
In oil field production system, the oil and gas processing stations are important hazard areas. In the transformation progresses a multitude of safety problems occur frequently each year, which cause personal injury accidents and lead to psychology shadow to each employee. That also exposes existing problems in oil and gas construction areas over the years. In order to better improve the HSE management level and reduce accidents as well as personnel damages, the HSE management level must be constantly improved in construction site.
The strengthening of environmental regulations around the world has changed the way service companies and their customers view the provision of drilling fluids. Ignoring the effects on the environment from mixing, transporting, cleaning, re-using and disposing of mud and cuttings is no longer an option.