The volume and type of solids in a drilling mud system can adversely affect mud properties, reduce penetration rates, cause damage to drilling equipment, and increase total drilling costs. Efficiency controlling the solids content of the mud system is an important phase of an efficient and cost-effective drilling program. The three basic methods of removing solids are dilution and/or displacement of whole mud, settling and mechanical solids-control equipment.
An important problem in the oil industry is the treatment of produced water, especially in the case of offshore oil production where space and floor area, needed for the separation equipment, are extremely costly. Increased production of water occurs when an oil field matures, and the availability of efficient and cost-effective techniques partly determines the period during which economic production is possible. For the final de-oiling process several techniques are available, of which plate separation, centrifugation and the use of hydrocyclones are important ones. Common characteristics of these three techniques are that only insoluble oil components can be removed, and that the prevailing separation process is movement of the oil droplets with respect to the continuous phase, water, as a result of an external force, viz. the gravity force or the centrifugal force.
1.Collecting Data for the Capture Analysis
A sample set of each of the three process streams should be obtained, sealed, and labeled for identification. The size of each sample should be 50–100 ml. For each set, the time between catching each of the samples should be as brief as possible.
♦ Before startup, rotate the bowl by hand to be sure that it rotates freely.
♦ Start the centrifuge before starting the feed pump or dilution fluid flow.
♦Observe the manufacturer’s recommendations concerning feed and dilution rates.
♦When shutting down, shut the feed off, then the dilution, then the machine.