The importance of terminology properly defining a drilling fluid is becoming of greater significance. This includes the drilling contractor, the operator, the mud service engineer, and even the well completion service specialists who
must work with the well after the hole is down. As the number of products added to a given drilling fluid formulation increases, so does the importance of proper mud classification, proper metering and measurement of fluids and special additives.
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Other than the drill floor itself, the solids control system requires more attention than any other single rig system whether onshore or offshore. For that reason, it is most important that the solids control system is designed to be as efficient and as maintenance free as possible. This section will discuss that pan of the mud system extending from the bell nipple (or diverter housing outlet) to the mud pump suction piping.
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The industry has had to react in recent years to significant major challenges, improving both chemical stability of the emulsifier system and impact on the environment. This latter factor covers both occupational health and ecological hazards resulting from contact with the fluids themselves and the wastes generated, mainly drilled cuttings. Under pressure from state environmental agencies, the industry, particularly offshore, is being pushed to use fluid system components exhibiting maximum biodegradability which should, in
addition, be achieved with minimum oxygen demand. The system components should also be non-bioaccumulative, and the complete systems should exhibit low toxicity on representative species (an alga, a crustacean, and a sediment re-worker or a juvenile fish).
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Driven by motor, the pump body and inlet line are filled with liquid before starting the pump. With high-speed rotation, the impeller drives the liquid between the vanes to rotate together. Due to the effect of centrifugal force, the liquid is thrown to the outer edge of impeller from the impeller center with kinetic energy increased. After the liquid entering the pump shell, as the flow channel in the volute type pump shell is gradually enlarged, the liquid velocity is decreased gradually, which makes part of the kinetic energy transform into static energy, therefore the liquid with high pressure is discharged along the outlet. At the same time, the impeller center forms a certain vacuum for th at the liquid is thrown out. The pressure on liquid level is higher than that of impeller center, so the liquid in suction pipe will flow into the pump under the action of pressure difference. With the constant rotation of impeller, the liquid is sucked and extruded continuously.
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