The main parts, a centrifugal pump consist of are casing, impeller, shaft, bearing, and sealing.
The decanting centrifuge is the only liquid-solids separation device used on drilling fluids that can remove (decant) all free liquid from the separated solids particles, leaving only adsorbed liquid or “bound liquid ,” on the surface area. This adsorbed liquid is not prone to contain solubles, such as chlorides, nor colloidal suspended solids, such as bentonite . The dissolved and suspended solids are associated with the continuous free liquid phase from which the decanting centrifuge separates the inert solids, and are removed with that liquid. The adsorbed liquid can only be removed from the separated solids by evaporation, which has been neither desirable nor practical so far in drilling mud work.
Since that is unlikely in the near future, the settling tank is extremely important. If the shaker screen were always adequate, never developed a tear that passed oversize solids through, never had to be bypassed during drilling, etc., the major justification for a settling tank (or “shale trap,” or “sand trap”) would disappear. Some information has been published on the subject, but the following points are cardinal:
This video shows how these solids control equipment (shale shaker, desander, desilter, mud cleaner, centrifuge and pumps) works.