Discrete Element Method (DEM) is attracting increasing interest for the simulation of Drilling fluid flow, much of the previous DEM modelling has considered two-dimensional (2D) flows and used circular solids particles in drilling fluid. The flow of particulate materials plays a critical role in dilling mud processes.
A few basic items greatly influence the performance of the drilling fluid and ultimate cost of the drilling operations.
The importance of terminology properly defining a drilling fluid is becoming of greater significance. This includes the drilling contractor, the operator, the mud service engineer, and even the well completion service specialists who
must work with the well after the hole is down. As the number of products added to a given drilling fluid formulation increases, so does the importance of proper mud classification, proper metering and measurement of fluids and special additives.
Gypsum (Gyp) Muds are water mud system which containing gypsum. Gyp mud can be used for drilling shales, but it is also well-suited for drilling gypsum, anhydrite and salt stringers. An advantage of gyp over lime muds is that the pH of gyp mud need not be so high because it contains more soluble Ca+2 to inhibit shale swelling. Gypsum, CaSO4·2H2O, content is measured by an API test, and more can be added as needed. A calcium tolerant clay deflocculant may be needed to control viscosity. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and starch are used for fluid loss control along with a small amount of prehydrated bentonite.